Tax department: online payment system

Tax department: online payment system

Online payment of taxes:

Panama’s tax department recently announced that they have upgraded their website to accept online payments.  According to the notice published January 2018, they now accept online payment through their website:  This notice indicates that you can pay either online or pay in their offices at the cashier’s desk.  Until this year, they would only accept payments through specified banks, cashier’s cheques, certified cheques, or deposits into their account in Banco Nacional or Caja de Ahorros. They now allow you to pay with Visa, Mastercard or debit cards (Clave). They do not accept American Express (AMEX) or other cards.

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How to use the online payment system:

In order to pay your property taxes online, you need to log into your personal tax account. This means that you need you TIN (Tax Identification Number – RUC) and your NIT (the password). In the case of your property this is the property number – hyphen- location code. For example: 123456-8305. As for your corporation, this varies – but it known as the RUC. For your personal tax ID, that depends on your cédula number or 8NT as a foreigner.

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You need to press “Iniciar Sesión” in order for the pop-up window to show you where to log in.

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Once you are logged in to your account (either person, corporate or property taxes), you will be able to use the online payment details window.  You can pay one at a time: i.e. personal or corporate or property.

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If you decide to pay your property taxes this way, we recommend that you then proceed to print an updated statement of account. Always keep your own file of payments made, as you would of payments made through the bank or in person.

Gray & Co. will still continue to pay annual government fees for clients for their corporations as we have done in the past. But with respect to property taxes, you should request that we continue to do this on your behalf as you can now pay online.

If you have any questions regarding this update, please do not hesitate to contact our office.

Estate planning: Asking the right questions

Estate planning: Asking the right questions

Estate Planning

If you have relocated to Panama, or you are thinking of retiring to Panama, then you should consider estate planning in Panama.  As an estate planner, I look at how you anticipate, during your life, to manage and dispose of your estate during and after death.  We consider issues of estate tax, gift tax, and income tax for the beneficiaries, as well as the costs of the transfer of the estate to the next generation. Asking the right questions is essential to make sure the estate plan works for you.

Wealth management

Accumulating wealth is a great accomplishment that requires skill and determination. It also requires a uniquely developed plan for your personal circumstances or that of your business.  Part of our job is to outline how our clients assets should be managed and preserved throughout their life and then distributed afterward to the people or causes they love.

During your lifetime, needs and goals will change. There will be the time for saving and investment, portfolio growth, business growth and investment, and then there are considerations of retirement.  During these different stages, priorities in the estate plan may change. Family situations may change. Estate plans should be updated.

The assets and their liquidity will change during these years. For some clients, business succession will need to be considered or having a golden parachute with which to leave the company.  Exit strategies need to be considered.  One of the most difficult parts of estate planning is family businesses and organising an orderly succession and transfer to the next generation.

Your plan

One part of estate planning may include a Last Will and Testament, for assets held in your personal name. Another option is to structure the assets in entities (corporation, trust or foundation), so that probate can be avoided and the transfer can happen quickly. The estate plan should also consider issues of a Living Will (for taking medical decisions and possible mental disability).  You will want to consider issues of guardianship or conservatorship.

To be effective, you need to be open with the estate planner about all the details of your life that need to be cared for.

Wills or  Intestate probate

Part of this estate planning process may include writing up a Will (Last Will & Testament). A will will cover assets held in your personal name (real estate, investment accounts, bank accounts, cars, etc.).

Types of Wills

There are a number of different types of wills that are acceptable in Panama, including these:

  1. Holographic will: the testator hand-writes their will on simple paper. They also date the will and sign it at the end (signing each page if it is more than one page long). This Will may, or may not, be inside a sealed envelope or not and is not normally witnessed. In order to be valid, this will must be presented for probate within five years of the death of the testator.
  2. Open will: A lawyer typically prepares this will, as a Public deed.  It is written before a Public Notary and three witnesses. The Notary will then  read the Will aloud before the witnesses, and the Testator confirms that the will fulfills their wishes.  The original Will is kept at the Public Notary archives, a copy is handed to the person making the will.
  3. Closed will: like the above, this will is written on special stamped Notarial paper. The Testator signs each page and at the end. The notary and three witnesses simply witness that the Testator expressed that they are issuing a closed will. They do not read the contents thereof.  The Notary then seals the will in an envelope with a deed that confirms this was done, signed by the Notary and three witnesses. The testator takes custody of their envelope. The contents of the document will only be known by the person who wrote the will. Once the person dies, the will is opened by the judge in charge of the probate proceedings.
  4. Immanent death: Known as an oral will, this is valid if the person is in risk of imminent death. In this case, the person expresses his/her last will before five witnesses, and this type of will is valid where the decedent dies within two months after so doing.


Nevertheless, in Panama the probate process (either testate or intestate) will require a lawyer (not simply an executor) and will go through the court system. Lawyers in Panama charge for the probate process based on the value of the assets in the estate. Their fees usually run between 10-40% of the value of the assets.  While the fees established for the process run from ten to fifteen percent, these are the minimum fees charged. Clients often find that local lawyers are charging substantially more than this percentage for the probate process, so we attempt to use structuring to avoid the process.

Estate planning options

Nevertheless, you may prefer to structure your estates so as to avoid probate and the process above.  Instead of holding property and investments in your personal name, you could own property through a corporation, Private interest foundation or a trust.  These offer the benefit that assets do not have to be “transferred” to the beneficiaries by the court. They are managed and disbursed by the Board of Directors, Trustee or Foundation Council.  Nonetheless, there may still be costs involved (such as real estate commissions on the sale of the house or property transfer taxes to the buyer). There are also annual costs associated with the entity (management, government fees).

We understand that your estate is more than simply your wealth or money. It is somehow a reflection of a life well lived.  More than anything, it gives you the opportunities to live in retirement the way you envisioned living.  You can provide for your family or contribute to charities or causes that are meaningful to you. Once you have achieved your financial goals, you want the freedom to choose how you will spend your life and make use of your resources, knowing that you have taken care of all the details.

We know that this process should be all-encompassing, and are experienced in asking the right questions to help you move through this process. We want to ensure that your estate plan is personalised to your particular goals.

Contact us for more information regarding how we can help you with your estate plan.


Consent letter minors: 2018 Immigration Update

Consent letter minors: 2018 Immigration Update

Who needs a consent letter?

A consent letter is needed for under age children –

  • travelling alone, or with
  • one parent/guardian
  • friends
  • relatives
  • a group (such as sports/arts/competitions)

If you are travelling abroad (from Panama) with a child who was born in Panama (even if they are travelling on a foreign passport, and not their Panamanian passport) or you have residency in Panama, then you should go through the process (online as of the 1st of April, 2018) of getting a consent letter from the other parent/guardian of the child. This is especially important if you are travelling with a child that is not your own (nephew, neice, friend’s child).

As of April 1st, the system will change, so I will provide details of how to proceed at the moment (before April 1st) at the bottom of this article, and at the beginning I will deal with the new system that will come into play shortly.

You do not need a consent letter if both parents are travelling together with the child/children. In this case, at immigration you need to have at hand: passports, birth certificate (for the child/minor), and a little patience while they review/compare the passports with the birth certificate.

If they have a “cédula infantil”, you can replace the birth certificate with a copy of the cédula (both sides – because on the reverse are the names of the parents), and you need to also carry the original cédula infantil.  They will probably keep the photocopy.

When do you need it?

My experience has been that the only time I need this letter is leaving Panama, not once I am internationally travelling.  I usually make, however, two letters, because it is my experience that they KEEP the birth certificate and letter each time I leave the country. So, I make sure I have a second one with me for the rest of the trip, just in case. In Panama, this is a legal requirement: if you don’t have it, you will miss your flight.

Also, I would suggest, if you have a foreign birth certificate, that you make numerous notarized copies of it, so that you don’t give them your original each time.  For a Panamanian child, the cost of a birth certificate is $3.00 and can usually be obtained from El Rey.  Otherwise, you need to get it from the Electoral Tribunal.


What do you need for the online consent letter?

You need to include with the online application the following documents (NOTE PDF format, maximum 10MB)

  1. Child’s passport or cédula
  2. Passport or cédula for EACH parent/guardian
  3. Passport of the third party that is travelling with the client, if they are not travelling with a parent/guardian

Instructions for how to proceed:

First, you need to sign into the portal: Migración en Línea and then go to “solicitudes”.  This will look like this:

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And, as you can guess, you need to click on the image of the parents and child for travelling abroad and the online consent letter.

This will open you up to the instructions, which state (in Spanish, of course):

Pulse el botón “LLENAR SOLICITUD” que aparece abajo en esta página. a. Coloque toda la información que se solicita en el formulario. b. Debe adjuntar a su solicitud todos los documentos requeridos escaneados en formato PDF con un tamaño máximo de 10MB.
El sistema le emitirá al completar el formulario un documento con el Número de Solicitud.
Con el Número de Solicitud impreso debe proceder a notariar dicho documento.

What this says is: Push below on the button that says “LLENAR SOLICITUD” (complete application), and complete the information requested in the form. Then attach to the application the documents requested in PDF format, with a maximum size of 10MB.

The system will then issue a completed form which has a Request Number.  With this printed request number, you should go to the notary office to get it notarized.

Step 1:

Step one of the form is quite easy and straight forward.  You complete the details of the minor: name(s), last name(s), nationality, cédula or passport number, and gender.  Then in the second section, you complete the details of the trip or holiday: destination, type of transport (air, sea or land), date they will leave the country, date they return to the country, person who will be accompanying them, and your email address.

Then simply press “siguiente” / Next.

Step 2:

Here, you complete the details of the father and mother (or guardians).  Once again, this is pretty simple: name(s), surname(s), nationality, cédula or passport number, relationship with the child (father, mother, guardian) and your gender (male/female).  And then simply press Next/siguiente.

Step 3:

Upload your PDF file documents, and then press “send/ENVIAR”.  At that stage, you should get a document to print out with “Número de Solicitud”, which is your Request Number. You take this print out to the Notary, and they will go online and verify the information submitted, and then notarise it. This is then what you need for the airport (they may, or may not, ask for it, but you should have it with you).

Who needs to go to the Notary office?

  • Minor – travelling alone, with friends, a group or another family member: both parents
  • Minor travelling with one parent/guardian – the consenting parent – the one authorizing the other to travel alone with the child.

What should you take to the Notary office?

  • The form/print out from the system
  • The passport(s)/cédula(s) for each person

In case you need more information:

Contact Joan Villanueva in our office, or maybe just watch this video from Immigration regarding this process (and don’t worry that you can’t understand the words, they are pretty self-explanatory):


I’m leaving before April 1st – what do I do?

In that case, you should prepare the usual consent letter, have it signed by the parent/guardian that is NOT travelling, get it notarised, and take it to the airport with you (and don’t forget the birth certificate).

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Tourism Authority & the war on shortterm rentals

Tourism Authority & the war on shortterm rentals

Prohibited Shortterm rentals:

Panama City Airbnb Listing

Since November 2012, it is illegal in Panama City to rent out your home or apartment for less than 45 days. Law 80 (2012) applied fines to those offering short-term rentals in the City district. The Tourism Authority enforces this law strictly. These fines range from 5,000 to $50,000.000. This prohibition  includes advertising the property online : for example: an Airbnb listing,, or  Note, this only applies to the District of Panama.

HOA & Condomium Association rules:

Outside of the Panama City district, it is legal to offer the short-term rentals, such as an Airbnb listing. But, HOA or Condomium Association rules for buildings and housing subdivisions regulate what is permitted by their owners (which may restrict use of this nature). So, even for properties outside of Panama City, HOA rules may prohibit using the property for short term rentals. In these cases, the HOA association is responsible for enforcement, rather than the Tourism Authority.

So, in some cases, it may be beneficial to register your property as a tourism activity, such as a B&B, in order to avoid problems with your neighbours or the tourism authority.  Of course, that will depend on the size of your property/home and whether you can comply with the requirements for registration. So, if you have a home in the provinces (rather than in Panama City), you might be able to register with the tourism authority as a B&B, and then get your Airbnb listing to assist in getting it filled, if you intend to run it as a business, rather than occasional lodging when you are not using your holiday home.  Not all homes will be eligible, as the tourism authority requires a minimum of 3 rooms which must be separate from the rooms that the family uses habitually.

Registration with Tourism Authority:

For some properties, benefits exist for registration with the Tourism Authority of Panama under Law 80 (2012). However, the deadline to completed registration outside of the District of Panama is December 31, 2020.  Tourism is a priority, in the national interest. “Tourism” includes agrotourism, ecotourism, rafting and adventure sports and other tourism activities.


Outside of the District of Panama City:

New Hotels and buildings:

To this end, the national tourism registry offers tax incentives for building new tourism establishments. These incentives apply to:

  1. import duties on construction materials & furniture and fixtures;
  2. property taxes on the land and improvements built for 15 years;
  3. duties for docks and airports built by the tourism company (which may be used by the State at any time without cost), for 15 years;
  4. income tax on interest on loans (available to the creditors who loan money for construction);
  5. income tax from the lodging business (hotel, motel, b&b, hostal, etc.) for first 15 years;
  6. capital tax for 5 years (this is a tax in the annual tax return of companies on paid in capital);
  7. loans made to the tourism business. These loans are exempted from the withholding of Law 4 (1994), and are not considered personal or commercial loans.

Existing tourism businesses:

For existing tourism businesses, with up to 50 rooms, who are not registered and receiving tax breaks, registration with the Tourism Authority results in shorter tax breaks.  These incentives are:

  1. import duties on construction materials & furniture and fixtures for remodelling (for 5 years from the time of registration);
  2. property taxes on the land and improvements built for 10 years;
  3. income tax from the lodging business (hotel, motel, b&b, hostal, etc.) for 5 years;
  4. loans made to the tourism business. These loans are exempted from the withholding of Law 4 (1994), and are not considered personal or commercial loans.

Basic registration requirements:

The registration form must be completed and handed in to the Tourism Authority. This form is quite basic, asking information regarding the tourism operator, the investment being made and the property on which the lodging will  or has been built.  The following documents must also be submitted:

  1. Blueprints, stamped by the local city council (when you are requesting tax exemptions on the construction).
  2. If applicable, certification of approval by the environmental authority.
  3. Certification regarding the financing for the project – signed by a CPA.
  4. Public registry certificate – for the company that will own/operate the project
  5. ID of the legal representative
  6. Public registry certificate for the property on which the project is being built
  7. Feasibility study, signed off by an economist.
    1. Market study: the type of lodging offered, supply and demand, marketing
    2. Total investment to be made: income which is expected to be earned, operating costs, financing, payment terms, debt servicing, income/loss statement
    3. Financial evaluation: net income; IRR (internal rate of return); present value; cost benefit ratio; sensitivity analysis; and breakeven.

Once presented, the applicant has 30 days to provide a bond (to ensure completion of the construction/remodelling and the investment to be made) covering 1% of the investment (up to a maximum of $500,000.00).  This is to ensure completion of the project, and not simply obtaining the tax benefits on the import duties and then never actually completing the project.  If no construction is required, then the applicant must start operating in no more than 2 months after having been approved.

Types of Registration:

  1. Hotel 
  2. Motel – minimum of 20 rooms, cafeteria, reception & salon, no more than 2 stories high
  3. Hostal – 20 to 80 beds/bunks; small reception/administration area; parking; communal kitchen area.
  4. B&B – 3 to 9 rooms, with at least one bathroom for every 3 rooms (may be shared bathrooms), which cannot be used by the family, offering at least breakfast.
  5. Aparthotel – at least 8 apartments (40 if in Panama City), each apartment with at least basic kitchen, dining room, living room & bedroom.
  6. Camp sites – basic infrustructure with bathrooms, showers, cooking area, and recreational areas, in addition to the camping sites.  Mens and women’s lavatories.  Each site should have: electric outlets, water, and an appropriate sewage system.  Appropriate rubbish disposal system and bins.
  7. Cabins – at least 3 cabins which must each have their own bathroom/shower and closet and each must have its own cooking equipment (basic).  Parking close to each cabin, as applicable.  Reception area/principal entrance / administration area.


Christmas Holidays 2017 – offices closed and staff away

Christmas Holidays 2017 – offices closed and staff away

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We have a number of Christmas Holidays this year, which we would like to draw your attention to:

Mother’s Day 2017

Friday, December 8, 2017 – our office will be closed.

Christmas Holidays 2017:

Our office will close at mid-day on December 22, for a Staff Christmas lunch. We will be back on the 2nd of January. During the holiday period, we will have a skeleton staff avilable for emergencies, but any routine things (such as annual renewal fees and corporate matters) should be requested before we close for Christmas.

We appreciate your cooperation and wish you Happy Holidays this Christmas and New Year’s season.

Law 66 (2017): Property Taxes – part 1

Law 66 (2017): Property Taxes – part 1

Law 66 (2017) was finally published on October 17, even though it had been approved by the Legislature almost a full month beforehand.  This law introduces two impactful changes to property taxes, as well as giving property owners a moratorium until December 31, 2017.  I will deal first with the Moratorium, and then will get into the details of the changes introduced by Law 66.

Moratorium (in effect already):

Effective immediately, Law 66 (2017) brought into effect a moratorium on penalties and interest due on property taxes. Property in Panama is taxed yearly, payable in 3 equal parts (April 30, August 31 and December 31 each year). Failure to pay on time automatically incurs in a 9% interest per annum, plus penalties. Many property owners opt to simply allow the tax  and interest to accrue until they are ready to sell the properties, as the Tax Department has not been effective in collections. We are seeing this change with the modernisation and computarization of the Tax Department.

Also note:
if you pay your property taxes each year (a single annual payment, rather than in 3 parts) before the end of February, you can receive a 10% discount on the total amount of tax due.

Apply for Moratorium:

This moratorium is easy to apply for (it must be applied for, it is not “automatic”) through the Tax Department’s online system: eTax2. Basically, you log into the property with it’s tax ID number and NIT (password or code) and then simply press the button that appears for (Moratorium).  This will provide you with the total amount which is due, excluding the penalties and interest, so that you can proceed with the payment.  This has to be done for EACH property individually through the system, it cannot be done through the owner’s tax ID.  If you do not know your property’s tax ID or NIT, then you need to get this through the online system or set it up so that you have access to this before you can apply.

It is imperative that payment of the taxes be made before the end of the year if you want to take advantage of the cancelling/exemption from the penalties and interest which may be due.

This moratorium ends December 31, 2017.

Law 66 (2017) – the principal changes introduced:

The principal changes which are introduced by Law 66 are a reduction in property tax rates. Until this Law, Panama’s property tax was as high as 2.1% – which means that a property worth $500,000.00 could pay as much as $10,500.00 in property tax each year (almost $1,000.00 a month). Obviously, a $2,000,000 property would pay $42,000.00 a year. Under the new law, coming into effect on January 1, 2019, the maximum rate, even for commercial or industrial property is 1%, less than half the previous rate.

Primary Residence / Family Home

Until now, any home or property valued at least than $30,000.00 paid 0% property tax in Panama, and then above that taxes were due on a sliding scale, starting at 0.7%. This 0.7% is now the highest rate for a family home or primary residence (starting January 1, 2019). The $30,000.00 exemption is still recognised on all properties (as long as the total value of the property – land + improvements – remains under $30,000.00.  However, over the $30,000.00, where the property (land and improvements) is worth less than $120,000.00 and is your family home (as defined by the Family Code) or primary residence (for a single person or others who don’t qualify as “family”), then you are entitled to the 0% property tax rate.

If your property is worth MORE than $120,000.00, then there are 2 brackets:

  1. over $120,000 but less than $700,000; and
  2. over $700,000.00

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For a property (land and improvements) valued at less than $700,000.00 the applicable tax rate will be O.5%.  Over $700,000.00 the applicable tax rate will be 0.7%.  These, however, are sliding scales, which means that from $0.00 to $120,000.00 you apply the 0%, then from $120,000 to $700,000 you apply the 0.5% rate, and then whatever the value is over $700,000, you apply the 0.7% rate.  See the following example:

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It will be necessary to present documentation to the Tax Department certifying that this property is your family home or primary residence for this special tax rate to apply under Law 66 (2017). It will not be automatic and it will not be retroactive (if you forget to apply and then apply later).

Second residence, holiday homes, commercial & industrial properties

For those properties that do not qualify as a family home or primary residence, the tax rates are also reduced as of January 1, 2019.  The applicable rates are the following:

  • 0.0% – up to $30,000.00
  • 0.6% – from $30,000.00 to $250,000.00
  • 0.8% – from $250,000.00 to $500,000.00
  • 1.0% – over $500,000.000

As explained for primary residences, this is sliding scale, so calculation is necessary for each range of values.

What about my Tax Exemption that I already have?

Law 66 (2017) also contemplates those cases (primarily new condos and homes) where they have an existing property exemption on the improvements (such as the 20-year exemption). In these cases, the properties are grandfathered into those exemptions until they expire.  So, if you property exemption on the improvements is in place until 2025, the new tax rate will come into effect for you in 2025, rather than on January 1, 2019. The land (in the cases of such condos) will continue to pay the 1% rate that is applicable until such exemption expires.

Final notes: first home buyers & mortgage holders

Two more interesting notes:

  1. First home buyers: for the first 3 years will have an exemption on the property value up to $300,000.00 (not just $120,000.00) on their primary residency / family home. At the end of the 3 years, the usual rates will apply.
  2. Mortgage holders (banks, mortgage companies, trust companies)  will be responsible for charging the home owner (as part of their monthly payments) their property taxes due and paying these in directly to the tax department on behalf of the property owner.

We originally wrote about this topic as Bill 509, before it had come into effect or was published.

November 2017 public holidays

November 2017 public holidays

Please note that our office will be closed the following dates in November 2017, for public holidays:

  • Friday – November 3 – Separation from Colombia
  • Monday – November 6 – November 5th is Colon Day, and as this falls on a Sunday, the public holiday is celebrated on Monday
  • Friday – November 10 – Panama remembers its Primer Grito de Independencia – its first cry for independence from Spain
  • Tuesday – November 28 – Independence from Spain

November 2017 public holidays – their meanings

In November, Panama celebrates a month of national festivities. Throughout November 2017, all around the country the flag and patriotic symbols are displayed (offices are draped with the flag or colors, most cars fly a small flag inside). There are four days of great historical importance for Panama in November.

The 3rd, 5th, 10th and 28th of November are public holidays, and as the 5th falls on a Sunday in November 2017, marches will be done on the Sunday, but the 6th will be a day off. The 2nd and 4th are also days on which school bands march and there are generally parades in all towns.  The celebrations these days are due to the separation of Panama from Colombia, the “cry” of independence and the independence from Spain, respectively.

In case you are unaware of the meaning of each of these public holidays, the following is a very short summary of what each day represents:

Separation from Colombia

Known as Separation Day, this holiday celebrates the independence of Panama from Colombia in 1903.  Panama came under Spanish control with the arrival of settlers in the 16th century. From 1538 until 1821 Panama was governed as part of the Viceroyalty of Peru. On 28 November 1821, Panama become independent from Spain as the region was a department within the Republic of Greater Colombia. In 1903, Colombia and Panama disagreed on whether the U.S. should be allowed to build a canal across Panama. With the support of the U.S., Panama broke away from Colombia on 3 November 1903.

Colon Day

Celebration of Colon Day is connected with the history of independence of Panama from Colombia. The USA assisted Panama in separation from Colombia, but the latter didn’t want to recognize independence of Panama. Officially Panama declared its independence on November 3, 1903, but the battle didn’t finish. The government of Colombia ordered the Army to march on Panama City. On November 3, 1903 the Panamanians had to stay their grounds in the city of Colon, that is a strategic place near the Caribbean Sea.

Primer Grito de la Independencia

This public holiday commemorates the beginning of Panama’s struggle for independence from Spain in 1821. Rufina Alfaro was a young woman who lived in a small village near Los Santos. On November 10, 1821 she led a group of Panamanians, shouting “Viva la Libertad” (Long live liberty).

People armed with sticks and stones seized Spanish barracks without spilling a single drop of blood. After the uprising, citizens of Azuero Peninsula declared their independence from Spain. Apparently a letter was also penned to the legendary Simon Bolivar, asking him for assistance in getting independence and complaining about the Spanish Governor.

Independence Day

On November 28th, Panama celebrates Independence from Spain. On November 28, 1821, eighteen days after Primer Grito de Independencia, Panama was declared a sovereign entity. This declaration said that Panama was free from the control of the Spanish Monarchy. It immediately thereafter decided to join “Gran Colombia” (fearing that Spain might attempt to retake the country).

Shelf companies, Arrears, Registered Agents & Compliance

Shelf companies, Arrears, Registered Agents & Compliance

Cleaning up after Panama Papers

How could Panama, after the fiasco of the Panama Papers, clean up its act easily and in the stroke of a pen? One way to get rid of shelf companies, non-compliant clients, and those that are in arrears is:

From my perspective, striking off all of these companies takes care of a number of problems. Firstly, these companies were at least 3 years in arrears. Secondly, the client is not in contact with the registered agent. This means the registered agent has not got up to date due diligence from the client. Thirdly, in 2015 bearer shares were abolished. Companies were left with registered shares only, unless action was taken.  In all likelihood, this was not done.  Fourthly, the company probably doesn’t have financial records. Finally, shelf companies are virtually done away with, unless the provider has kept them up to date.  Hopefully all of these changes make Panama a better place to incorporate and run business from, legitimately.

If you think your corporation might have been struck off by mistake, and it holds assets (real estate or a bank account), you need to reactivate your company. For legal assistance with Panama Corporation, please do not hesitate to contact our office.


The corporations that were struck off by the Tax Department owed $30 Million plus in government fees. These are unpaid annual renewals.  Not only was the government not paid, most likely the registered agent in Panama was not paid. I doubt directors were paid. Prior to the amendment of Article 318-A of the Tax Code in 2016, companies were not automatically dissolved until 10 years after they stopped paying annual renewal fees. That was 10 years that the company continued to exist without being in contact with anyone in Panama.

Unfortunately, even so, the Tax Department lacked efficiency in notifying the Public Registry of such arrears and publishing the dissolution notices. In my 20 plus years in Panama, I have only seen this 10-year notice list published once. Under the 2016 amendment, after 3 years, the Tax Department notifies the Public Registry to put these companies as “struck off”, unable to carry on any business, and two years later, if they are not reinstated, they automatically move to involuntary liquidation and dissolution. And so, in 2017, some 40,000 plus companies are struck off.  In 2019, unless reactivated, these companies are automatically “dissolved”. Hence, banks worldwide are requiring, many on a yearly basis, a Certificate of Good Standing for companies.

Registered Agents

Many registered agents will heave a sigh of relief with this list of 40,000 companies that are struck off. Those are 40,000 companies that the registered agents of Panama no longer have to be concerned about with respect to Law 2 (2011) and Law 23 (2015), as long as they had their KYC in place at the time of incorporation, or at least until 2013 or 2014. After Panama Papers, it’s time for a massive clean up! Some firms are doing this voluntarily, but the economic cost is onerous.

Law 2 (2011) provides the registered agent the option to resign from all companies where they have lost contact with the client and are not able to update due diligence. This requires preparation of public deeds (notary costs) and filing at the public registry (also cost).  All up, about $100.00 per corporation. If you have 10 companies, that’s $1,000.00; for 100 companies that $10,000.00. And that’s 40,000 companies that Registered Agents will not have to resign from.

Since February 2016, all Registered Agents in Panama were required to have the KYC documentation in place for all active corporations under their management, irrespective of the date of incorporation. Additionally, registered agents are paying the costs of physical space (warehousing or offices) for all these files, as well as being administratively responsible for the companies under Law 2 (2011) and Law 23 (2015). Automatic striking off and then dissolution will liberate this space and cost for registered agents.

Bearer Shares: December 31, 2015

On December 31, 2015, by Law 47 (2013) companies which had not expressly elected to place their shares in custody, had their Articles of Incorporation changed to prohibit the used of bearer shares. If a company, on December 31st, had bearer shares, these shares were automatically cancelled. For companies which were active and properly managed, that meant that before (or on) December 31st, they passed a corporate resolution to exchange the bearer shares for registered shares. Those companies that didn’t comply were left without shareholders. Bearer shares were cancelled, but not replaced. Striking these companies off, and dissolving them in two years time, is a good way to clean up those companies that are not compliant.

Accounting Records:

As of January 1, 2017, all companies in Panama are required to keep accounting records.  These records do not need to be filed. Tax returns are not required. But the registered agent must receive from all active companies a written confirmation of where and how such accounting records are kept. Obviously, for those companies that are not up to date, and in contact with the registered agent, this information is not on record.

Shelf companies

A shelf corporation or aged company is a corporation that has had no activity. It was incorporated, with a board of directors (nominees) appointed, and left with no activity: put on the proverbial “shelf”.  One of the problems with these companies is that they have no shareholders or beneficial owners: they are waiting to be purchased. Then, when sold, shares are issued – “appropriately dated”. Powers of attorney may be issued “appropriately dated”. Contracts could be signed “appropriately dated”.

The issue is not one of the company being eight years old, and new board of directors being appointed, and shares being issued with current date. The problem with the shelf company is that transactions could be back-dated to reflect having taken place around the time of incorporation, even though at that time, the client didn’t even own the company.  Of course, Panama Papers focused mostly on “shell companies”, rather than shelf companies.  Shell companies are those who were not actually trading, but just shells used by the client for hiding an asset or transaction.

This doesn’t mean that all shelf companies will have been blotted out with this change: if the provider who had the shelf corporation was up to date in all the government fees, the company will still exist. But in terms of compliance, it’s hard to find any legitimate way that the company could still exist and be in compliance. Shares for a new company should be issued within 30 days of incorporation. Who is the shareholder? And if the Registered Agent is required to keep all records regarding the beneficial ownership of the company from incorporation onward, there is no leeway for issuing shares to another person from the date of incorporation.

Striking off: Panamanian Corporations

Striking off: Panamanian Corporations

Wednesday, October 4th, the Ministry of Economy & Finance (read: Tax Department) published in the Gazette 174-page list of companies which have been struck off the register.  This striking off is done in accordance with Article 318-A, subsections 2, 3 & 4 of the Tax Code.  Article 318-A of the Tax Code deals with the payment of annual renewal fees (franchise tax) for corporations, foundations & LLCs.

This is the third such list it has published this week. The first was published on Monday. A second on Tuesday, and a fourth list was published today, just before I published this article! I almost missed that list. It’s an amazing 40,000 companies that are not in good standing. It’s estimated that these companies owe some $36 Million in government fees alone.

Effects of striking off:

Subsection 2 of Article 318-A establishes that failure to pay this annual renewal fee for 3 years consecutively results in striking off. Subsection 3 establishes the following effects of being struck off:

  • blocked from initiating legal action, doing business transactions or transfering assets;
  • unable to make claims or exercise rights;
  • blocked from filing corporate changes of any type.

Nonetheless, if your corporation is struck off, you may do the following:

  • request reactivation (paying an additional $1,000.00 penalty fee for reactivation);
  • defend any legal process begun against the company;
  • continue with any legal processes which started before striking off.

Automatic dissolution after striking off:

It is important to note that you only have a 2-year period after it is struck off to reactivate it, otherwise striking off leads to automatic dissolution at the Public Registry.  Consequently, the company will be considered to be wound up.  This means that any company that is in arrears for 5 years or more, is automatically dissolved (previously this was a 10-year period).

The lists of companies can be found in the following gazettes:

What do you need to do?

If you a corporation that owns property or has assets of any kind, and you have not been paying the annual renewal fees, then you have 2 years to reactive the company if it is on these lists. You need to pay all outstanding government fees and the $1,000 reinstatement fee (and registered agents and directors fees, if applicable). Otherwise, in 2 years from now, the Public Registry will dissolve the company automatically.

This is the first time any such list has been published since the amendment was introduced in 2016. Therefore, it contains companies that have not paid for five or even seven years, and not just those who owe 3 years in fees. This is the moment to bring your Panamanian corporation back into good standing if you are actually using it or you need it.


Finally, if you have any questions regarding your Panama Corporation and striking off, please do not hesitate to contact our office.  Our staff would be happy to assist you.

Bill 509: 2017 – Panama Property Tax changes

Bill 509: 2017 – Panama Property Tax changes

For about a year now, Panama has debated decentralized government. It will use property taxes to assist local city councils in this endeavour. Resistance to change has been very vocal, especially as scaremongering occurred: You will lose your homes. If you fail to pay your property taxes, your home will be taken from you. This is just another measure of expropriation. At the end of August, Bill 509 was sent back to first debate for re-drafting after a public outcry. It went through a lengthy second debate. Last night, Bill 509 was approved by the legislature in its third debate. It now awaits signing into law by the President, Juan Carlos Varela. We expect it to be sanctioned by the President and published, as there is no pressure for veto or further debate.

Bill 509 – 2017

The principal debate centered on an article removing the tax exemptions enjoyed by Free Trade Zones. “Free Trade Zones” refers to Processing Zones, Baru, Colon FTZ, and Panama Pacifico. Most of the Chambers of Commerce in Panama objected to modifying their tax treatment. They alleged it is important to have legal certainty for foreign investors. Although these changes were forward looking, they modify all of the special laws which had established these Free Zones. A key concern is investment: private investors in infrastructure will be scared away if changes are made. The Free Trade Zones have been hit hard in recent years by other economic factors, some of which have decimated sectors of the business.

Property Taxes:

primary residence, family home, Bill 509, Panama property taxes, property tax, real estate, property purchase, land tax, tax exemptions, Panama lawyers, Panama real estate lawyersFor home owners, however, Bill 509 promises a large reduction in property taxes. In some cases, a reduction down to 0%. For most, the reduction will be 75%, and for some of the higher valued properties, only a 50% reduction.  As it stands, Bill 509 establishes the following tax rates for primary family residences:

  • 0% for homes valued under $120,000.00
  • 0.5% for homes valued between $120,000 and $700,000
  • 0.7% for homes valued over $700,000.00

These new tax rates apply as of January 1, 2019. This is because before that date, property owners must present to the Tax Department their affidavits regarding this being their “primary residence” or “family home”, to establish it as the residence that receives these new rates.

However, a property owner with more than one property, will be eligible for these new tax rates only on their primary residence. The following rates apply to weekend or holiday homes, investment, rental, commercial or industrial properties:

  • 0% – less than $30,000 (this stays the same)
  • 0.6% for properties valued between $30,000 to $250,000
  • 0.8% fo properties valued between $250,000 to $500,000
  • 1.0% for properties valued over $500,000.00

Even for properties in the highest bracket, this is a reduction from the highest existing tax rate on properties of 2.1%.

Bill 509: improved collections

One of the changes that Bill 509 introduces that will assist with collections is that it appoints banks & mortgage financing companies as tax collectors. This does not apply to first time home buyers, but does apply for all other purchasers. Banks will add the property taxes due to the monthly fees, interest and principal calculated and will include the tax in the monthly payments. The bank will then remit the property taxes to the respective tax office.

Bill 509 also establishes that there will be no appraisals carried out on property values until 2024, allowing 5 years at current property values. Nevertheless, I would expect that after 2024, there is a general move by the tax department to get updated appraisals on all properties for the purpose of collections.

Good news: Moratorium

For anyone that owes property taxes, the good news is that there is a moratorium until December 31, 2017 to get up to date. This moratorium ensures that you only pay the actual taxes that you owe – they are writing off the interest and penalties if you pay all of the property taxes that are owed. For some property owners, this will be thousands of dollars in savings.

Gray & Co. will provide an update once the law has been sanctioned & published. We are also available to assist clients in getting up to date with the payment of their property taxes, taking full advantage of the moratorium that is being offered.

In 2018, our office will be available to assist clients in registering their primary residence under this new law in order to take advantage of the new tax rates.