Civil law involves most aspects of relationships between persons and organisations, as opposed to the relationship between private persons and the government, with a broad range of issues (principally breach of contract, negligence, nuisance, tort, probate and trusts). It may include cases of negligence or even property disputes – such as rights of way, liens and encumbrances, and other
Civil litigation encompasses a broad range of disputes, such as probate, personal injury, torts, malpractice, real estate transactions, construction disputes, and the such like. While Gray & Co.’s lawyers may not specialise in handling litigation cases, we are happy to assist the client in coordinating their relationship with a litigation lawyer, negotiating settlements, and managing the case.
Our lawyers may assist independent associates in the various stages of litigation, such as investigation, pleadings, discovery, pre-trial preparation, and even participate with accompanying the client through stages of the trial or settlement and the appeals process. Clients should be aware that as Panama has a litigation system based on the Napoleanic Code, the case will be handled differently than the US or UK adversarial system – there will be less court hearings and much more presentation of pleadings and documentation. Witnesses will be examined and cross-examined during the discovery process, rather than at court, with the judge principally be presented written reports by court reporters of the statements. Furthermore, contrary to the image portrayed by television, most time will be devoted to review of documents and the discovery process, rather than actual time in court. Complex civil litigation may take years to pass from pre-suit investigation through to trial and/or settlement.
The independent associated lawyers that we work with have strong essential skills and knowledge of the following:
- knowledge of substantive and procedural law
- strong written advocacy skills
- analytical and logical reasoning abilities
- ability to synthesise complex legal and factual materials
- negotiation skills