If you have relocated to Panama, or you are thinking of retiring to Panama, then you should consider estate planning in Panama. As an estate planner, I look at how you anticipate, during your life, to manage and dispose of your estate during and after death. We consider issues of estate tax, gift tax, and income tax for the beneficiaries, as well as the costs of the transfer of the estate to the next generation. Asking the right questions is essential to make sure the estate plan works for you.
Accumulating wealth is a great accomplishment that requires skill and determination. It also requires a uniquely developed plan for your personal circumstances or that of your business. Part of our job is to outline how our clients assets should be managed and preserved throughout their life and then distributed afterward to the people or causes they love.
During your lifetime, needs and goals will change. There will be the time for saving and investment, portfolio growth, business growth and investment, and then there are considerations of retirement. During these different stages, priorities in the estate plan may change. Family situations may change. Estate plans should be updated.
The assets and their liquidity will change during these years. For some clients, business succession will need to be considered or having a golden parachute with which to leave the company. Exit strategies need to be considered. One of the most difficult parts of estate planning is family businesses and organising an orderly succession and transfer to the next generation.
One part of estate planning may include a Last Will and Testament, for assets held in your personal name. Another option is to structure the assets in entities (corporation, trust or foundation), so that probate can be avoided and the transfer can happen quickly. The estate plan should also consider issues of a Living Will (for taking medical decisions and possible mental disability). You will want to consider issues of guardianship or conservatorship.
To be effective, you need to be open with the estate planner about all the details of your life that need to be cared for.
Wills or Intestate probate
Part of this estate planning process may include writing up a Will (Last Will & Testament). A will will cover assets held in your personal name (real estate, investment accounts, bank accounts, cars, etc.).
Types of Wills
There are a number of different types of wills that are acceptable in Panama, including these:
- Holographic will: the testator hand-writes their will on simple paper. They also date the will and sign it at the end (signing each page if it is more than one page long). This Will may, or may not, be inside a sealed envelope or not and is not normally witnessed. In order to be valid, this will must be presented for probate within five years of the death of the testator.
- Open will: A lawyer typically prepares this will, as a Public deed. It is written before a Public Notary and three witnesses. The Notary will then read the Will aloud before the witnesses, and the Testator confirms that the will fulfills their wishes. The original Will is kept at the Public Notary archives, a copy is handed to the person making the will.
- Closed will: like the above, this will is written on special stamped Notarial paper. The Testator signs each page and at the end. The notary and three witnesses simply witness that the Testator expressed that they are issuing a closed will. They do not read the contents thereof. The Notary then seals the will in an envelope with a deed that confirms this was done, signed by the Notary and three witnesses. The testator takes custody of their envelope. The contents of the document will only be known by the person who wrote the will. Once the person dies, the will is opened by the judge in charge of the probate proceedings.
- Immanent death: Known as an oral will, this is valid if the person is in risk of imminent death. In this case, the person expresses his/her last will before five witnesses, and this type of will is valid where the decedent dies within two months after so doing.
Nevertheless, in Panama the probate process (either testate or intestate) will require a lawyer (not simply an executor) and will go through the court system. Lawyers in Panama charge for the probate process based on the value of the assets in the estate. Their fees usually run between 10-40% of the value of the assets. While the fees established for the process run from ten to fifteen percent, these are the minimum fees charged. Clients often find that local lawyers are charging substantially more than this percentage for the probate process, so we attempt to use structuring to avoid the process.
Estate planning options
Nevertheless, you may prefer to structure your estates so as to avoid probate and the process above. Instead of holding property and investments in your personal name, you could own property through a corporation, Private interest foundation or a trust. These offer the benefit that assets do not have to be “transferred” to the beneficiaries by the court. They are managed and disbursed by the Board of Directors, Trustee or Foundation Council. Nonetheless, there may still be costs involved (such as real estate commissions on the sale of the house or property transfer taxes to the buyer). There are also annual costs associated with the entity (management, government fees).
We understand that your estate is more than simply your wealth or money. It is somehow a reflection of a life well lived. More than anything, it gives you the opportunities to live in retirement the way you envisioned living. You can provide for your family or contribute to charities or causes that are meaningful to you. Once you have achieved your financial goals, you want the freedom to choose how you will spend your life and make use of your resources, knowing that you have taken care of all the details.
We know that this process should be all-encompassing, and are experienced in asking the right questions to help you move through this process. We want to ensure that your estate plan is personalised to your particular goals.
Contact us for more information regarding how we can help you with your estate plan.
Cleaning up after Panama Papers
How could Panama, after the fiasco of the Panama Papers, clean up its act easily and in the stroke of a pen? One way to get rid of shelf companies, non-compliant clients, and those that are in arrears is:
- passing a few new laws in 2015 & 2016, and
- then, in 2017, with some simple resolutions of the Tax Department strike off 40,000 companies from the Public Registry.
From my perspective, striking off all of these companies takes care of a number of problems. Firstly, these companies were at least 3 years in arrears. Secondly, the client is not in contact with the registered agent. This means the registered agent has not got up to date due diligence from the client. Thirdly, in 2015 bearer shares were abolished. Companies were left with registered shares only, unless action was taken. In all likelihood, this was not done. Fourthly, the company probably doesn’t have financial records. Finally, shelf companies are virtually done away with, unless the provider has kept them up to date. Hopefully all of these changes make Panama a better place to incorporate and run business from, legitimately.
If you think your corporation might have been struck off by mistake, and it holds assets (real estate or a bank account), you need to reactivate your company. For legal assistance with Panama Corporation, please do not hesitate to contact our office.
The corporations that were struck off by the Tax Department owed $30 Million plus in government fees. These are unpaid annual renewals. Not only was the government not paid, most likely the registered agent in Panama was not paid. I doubt directors were paid. Prior to the amendment of Article 318-A of the Tax Code in 2016, companies were not automatically dissolved until 10 years after they stopped paying annual renewal fees. That was 10 years that the company continued to exist without being in contact with anyone in Panama.
Unfortunately, even so, the Tax Department lacked efficiency in notifying the Public Registry of such arrears and publishing the dissolution notices. In my 20 plus years in Panama, I have only seen this 10-year notice list published once. Under the 2016 amendment, after 3 years, the Tax Department notifies the Public Registry to put these companies as “struck off”, unable to carry on any business, and two years later, if they are not reinstated, they automatically move to involuntary liquidation and dissolution. And so, in 2017, some 40,000 plus companies are struck off. In 2019, unless reactivated, these companies are automatically “dissolved”. Hence, banks worldwide are requiring, many on a yearly basis, a Certificate of Good Standing for companies.
Many registered agents will heave a sigh of relief with this list of 40,000 companies that are struck off. Those are 40,000 companies that the registered agents of Panama no longer have to be concerned about with respect to Law 2 (2011) and Law 23 (2015), as long as they had their KYC in place at the time of incorporation, or at least until 2013 or 2014. After Panama Papers, it’s time for a massive clean up! Some firms are doing this voluntarily, but the economic cost is onerous.
Law 2 (2011) provides the registered agent the option to resign from all companies where they have lost contact with the client and are not able to update due diligence. This requires preparation of public deeds (notary costs) and filing at the public registry (also cost). All up, about $100.00 per corporation. If you have 10 companies, that’s $1,000.00; for 100 companies that $10,000.00. And that’s 40,000 companies that Registered Agents will not have to resign from.
Since February 2016, all Registered Agents in Panama were required to have the KYC documentation in place for all active corporations under their management, irrespective of the date of incorporation. Additionally, registered agents are paying the costs of physical space (warehousing or offices) for all these files, as well as being administratively responsible for the companies under Law 2 (2011) and Law 23 (2015). Automatic striking off and then dissolution will liberate this space and cost for registered agents.
Bearer Shares: December 31, 2015
On December 31, 2015, by Law 47 (2013) companies which had not expressly elected to place their shares in custody, had their Articles of Incorporation changed to prohibit the used of bearer shares. If a company, on December 31st, had bearer shares, these shares were automatically cancelled. For companies which were active and properly managed, that meant that before (or on) December 31st, they passed a corporate resolution to exchange the bearer shares for registered shares. Those companies that didn’t comply were left without shareholders. Bearer shares were cancelled, but not replaced. Striking these companies off, and dissolving them in two years time, is a good way to clean up those companies that are not compliant.
As of January 1, 2017, all companies in Panama are required to keep accounting records. These records do not need to be filed. Tax returns are not required. But the registered agent must receive from all active companies a written confirmation of where and how such accounting records are kept. Obviously, for those companies that are not up to date, and in contact with the registered agent, this information is not on record.
A shelf corporation or aged company is a corporation that has had no activity. It was incorporated, with a board of directors (nominees) appointed, and left with no activity: put on the proverbial “shelf”. One of the problems with these companies is that they have no shareholders or beneficial owners: they are waiting to be purchased. Then, when sold, shares are issued – “appropriately dated”. Powers of attorney may be issued “appropriately dated”. Contracts could be signed “appropriately dated”.
The issue is not one of the company being eight years old, and new board of directors being appointed, and shares being issued with current date. The problem with the shelf company is that transactions could be back-dated to reflect having taken place around the time of incorporation, even though at that time, the client didn’t even own the company. Of course, Panama Papers focused mostly on “shell companies”, rather than shelf companies. Shell companies are those who were not actually trading, but just shells used by the client for hiding an asset or transaction.
This doesn’t mean that all shelf companies will have been blotted out with this change: if the provider who had the shelf corporation was up to date in all the government fees, the company will still exist. But in terms of compliance, it’s hard to find any legitimate way that the company could still exist and be in compliance. Shares for a new company should be issued within 30 days of incorporation. Who is the shareholder? And if the Registered Agent is required to keep all records regarding the beneficial ownership of the company from incorporation onward, there is no leeway for issuing shares to another person from the date of incorporation.
Wednesday, October 4th, the Ministry of Economy & Finance (read: Tax Department) published in the Gazette 174-page list of companies which have been struck off the register. This striking off is done in accordance with Article 318-A, subsections 2, 3 & 4 of the Tax Code. Article 318-A of the Tax Code deals with the payment of annual renewal fees (franchise tax) for corporations, foundations & LLCs.
This is the third such list it has published this week. The first was published on Monday. A second on Tuesday, and a fourth list was published today, just before I published this article! I almost missed that list. It’s an amazing 40,000 companies that are not in good standing. It’s estimated that these companies owe some $36 Million in government fees alone.
Effects of striking off:
Subsection 2 of Article 318-A establishes that failure to pay this annual renewal fee for 3 years consecutively results in striking off. Subsection 3 establishes the following effects of being struck off:
- blocked from initiating legal action, doing business transactions or transfering assets;
- unable to make claims or exercise rights;
- blocked from filing corporate changes of any type.
Nonetheless, if your corporation is struck off, you may do the following:
- request reactivation (paying an additional $1,000.00 penalty fee for reactivation);
- defend any legal process begun against the company;
- continue with any legal processes which started before striking off.
Automatic dissolution after striking off:
It is important to note that you only have a 2-year period after it is struck off to reactivate it, otherwise striking off leads to automatic dissolution at the Public Registry. Consequently, the company will be considered to be wound up. This means that any company that is in arrears for 5 years or more, is automatically dissolved (previously this was a 10-year period).
The lists of companies can be found in the following gazettes:
- Resolution 201-5610
- Resolution 201-5611
- Resolution 201-5612
- Resolution 201-5613
- Resolution 201-5614
- Resolution 201-5615
- Resolution 201-5616
- Resolution 201-5617
- Resolution 201-5618
- Resolution 201-5619
- Resolution 201-5620
- Resolution 201-5621
- Resolution 201-5622
- Resolution 201-5623
- Resolution 201-5624
- Resolution 201-5625
- Resolution 201-5626 (MBCL – Muren)
- Resolution 201-5627
- Resolution 201-5628
- Resolution 201-5629
- Resolution 201-5630 (Puente Hombre – Rokewood Trading)
- Resolution 201-5631
- Resolution 201-5632
- Resolution 201-5633
- Resolution 201-5634
- Resolution 201-5635 (USA – ZYXXX)
What do you need to do?
If you a corporation that owns property or has assets of any kind, and you have not been paying the annual renewal fees, then you have 2 years to reactive the company if it is on these lists. You need to pay all outstanding government fees and the $1,000 reinstatement fee (and registered agents and directors fees, if applicable). Otherwise, in 2 years from now, the Public Registry will dissolve the company automatically.
This is the first time any such list has been published since the amendment was introduced in 2016. Therefore, it contains companies that have not paid for five or even seven years, and not just those who owe 3 years in fees. This is the moment to bring your Panamanian corporation back into good standing if you are actually using it or you need it.
Finally, if you have any questions regarding your Panama Corporation and striking off, please do not hesitate to contact our office. Our staff would be happy to assist you.
Opening Corporate bank accounts in Panama
Last week, our post dealt with opening personal bank accounts in Panama. This week, we will look at how to open a corporate bank account. It is important to note that there is a difference between locally operating companies and offshore corporations, especially in the banking industry. Some banks in Panama will only open accounts for corporations with an “aviso de operación” – business license. That is a company that operates locally and is subject to local taxes. On the other hand, some banks will only open accounts for offshore companies. It is no longer easy to find banks that are working with both onshore and offshore business.
Among the issues that banks consider are:
- FATCA compliance
- Cost of Know Your Client and Due Diligence
- Profile of the account – will the bank make money?
- Is this type of business in the normal line of business of the bank?
- How much money will pass through the account versus how much money will stay in the account?
Requirements: opening a corporate bank account
Many of the requirements for a corporate bank account are similar to those requested for the personal bank account. But in the case of a corporate account, the bank will want all documentation taking it back to the controlling interest or ultimate beneficial owner.
Keep it simple:
Imagine, for a moment, the following structure:
While this may look really “pretty” from the perspective of asset protection or estate planning, it is a nightmare for the compliance officer at the bank. Supposing that you are opening an account for the Panama corporation under the holding company, the bank needs to receive documentation for:
- Your Panama corporation – each one of the three directors, the account signatories, and the copies of the corporate documents;
- The share register that shows who “owns” the company – a holding company. Now they need the corporate documents for the holding company, with the due diligence and know your client details for each of the directors, shareholders, and officers of this company.
- The shareholder of the holding company: a foundation. They need the incorporation documents of the foundation, the details of each member of the Foundation Council, the Protector and possibly even the founder. And they still haven’t arrived back at the Ultimate Beneficial Owner.
- The bank ultimately wants to know:
- who has the controlling interest?
- which person is calling the shots?
- who is the decision, maker?
In conclusion, for the bank: simple is always better. Your asset protection or estate planning needs can be taken into account, but you should be able to explain the structure easily to the customer services representative at the bank.
In a corporate structure with multiple shareholders, you will need to provide know your client details for any shareholder or controlling person holding over 10%. Additionally, if the shareholder or holding company is a publicly traded entity, expect to provide proof of this. Make sure you have the proper authorization for establishing the subsidiary (resolutions) and authorized persons on the account.
Basic account opening requirements:
So, ignoring the complicated structure outlined above, what does the bank require?
- Corporate account opening forms (the bank will supply). There may be some 6-10 pages which need to be completed.
- Copies of your incorporation documents: articles of incorporation, resolutions.
- Copy of the share register
- Extract from the public registry – known by many as a Certificate of Good Standing
- Business plan – the banks are looking for something that shows what the company will be doing. Who will be the suppliers to the company? Similarly, what customers will the company have?
- If the company has been in existence for more than one year: financial statements and/or accounting records.
- Source of funds for the initial deposit and trade projections (usually provided in the actual account opening forms)
- Documentation (such as that provided for the personal account) for each person associated with the corporation:
- account signatories
- shareholders / beneficial owners / controlling interests
- FATCA forms – W8Ben, W8Ben-E, W9 – depending on the situation
The documents will vary depending on the bank that you choose to open the corporate bank account, but the above list and those indicated on the personal bank account page are pretty comprehensive of what is usually expected.
Factors to consider:
Once again, when choosing the bank there are a number of factors that you should consider:
- at the bank – your customer service representatives
- in the call center – is there a special number for English?
- what about their online system?
- Online banking platform
- Is it easy to use?
- Does it have a good security system?
- Do you need an App on your mobile phone, a token or how are passcodes generated?
- What are the minimum deposit / minimum balance requirements of the bank?
- What are your cash flow requirements?
Our office is happy to assist you with your corporate bank account needs in Panama. We are also able to offer banking options in other jurisdictions. In some cases, banks in other jurisdictions are easier to work with and offer a wider range of currencies and opportunities. Beth Gray is experienced with local and international business companies, especially the aspects of tax compliance and reporting. Betsy Moran is experienced with compliance issues, especially the AML guidelines. Joan Villanueva can assist with any relocation inquiries that you may have. Do not hesitate to contact us for more information regarding your corporate or business needs.
So, since posting the article regarding the need for accounting records, we have a number of questions asked by clients, so we thought we would provide a “Q&A Accounting Records”:
Is this true even for companies that do no business but only hold title to a property?
Yes – if the company does not actively do business but is holding assets of any nature, it should at the very least have a balance sheet. This would show the value of the asset (the property) and the value of the capital or loans made to the company which provided for the purchase of the proprety. Additionally, there should be included in the accounting the annual property taxes which are paid on the property, or any maintenance costs that are paid by the company that owns the property. Correspondingly, you would need to indicate where the funds come from to pay for these taxes (capital into the company, loans, or rental income).
…I will also need to be advised as to just what I need to keep records of. My corporations are solely to hold real estate and are within my foundation. Other than the corporations, a bank account, the foundation has no other purpose.
For the corporations which hold the real estate, you will need to prepare an accounting such as that suggested above: a balance sheet that shows the value of the asset (the property) and the value of the capital or loans made .
For the Foundation which owns the corporations, you should prepare a balance sheet which shows the assets (corporations – with their values – and the bank account). Funds moving in or out of the bank account should also be accounted, and you should attach to your accounting the monthly bank statements. As explained in our original article, there is no requirement to have a “formal accounting”, but it should at the very least have a balance sheet with assets, liabilities and capital.
Following are some basic examples of sample balance sheets:
As more questions are asked, we will attempt to update and provide answers to these questions about what is required in 2017.
Last year Panama had many changes in the financial sector: the Panama papers scandal lead to greater international pressure for OECD compliance and exchange of information. Months later the Clinton list added Waked and Grupo WISA (affecting some 6000 local employees), including two newspapers. The US alleged money laundering, although these allegations to date have been ruled unfounded by the courts. Nevertheless, these measures have resulted in company liquidations, interventions and sell-offs. There was also increased regulations introduced for lawyers and law firms, regarding bearer shares and due diligence, with registration of firms both with the Supreme Court of Panama and also with the Intendent that supervises Professionals (such as Realtors, Accountants, Casinos, Money Exchanges, Free zone and others). Furthermore, the pressure has increased against Panama to require all companies to provide accounting records.
As of January 1, 2017, Panamanian corporations that are open and operating, are required to have accounting records. They will need to notify their Registered Agent in Panama where these records are being kept.
Accounting Records for Offshore Companies & Foundations
The new rules adopted by Law 52 (2016) are for those offshore companies and foundations, even though they hae no direct business transactions in Panama.
- Offshore corporations – irrespective of whether or not they have bank accounts, are holding property or their purpose and function. If the company is in good standing, it is required to keep accounting records
- Private Interest Foundations – irrespective of what assets or holdings the foundation have
- Holding companies – even companies whose sole purpose is to hold share in other companies are required to have accounting records
Accounting records in Law 52 are described as “that data that clearly and precisely indicates the commercial operations that the entity has, its assets, liabilities and capital contributions.” In the Commercial Code of Panama, we find that the accounts are described as being essencial the the “Diario” and the “mayor”, and the supporting documentation. The “mayor” is the ledger , and the “diario” would be the book where you register the day to day transactions . The supporting documentation would be the invoices, cheque stubs, banking statements, contracts for sale or purchase, or other documentation. All of this data should ensure that the company can provide an updated balance sheet at any time of assets, liability and capital.
The law does not specify “how” these records are to be kept, but in Panama the Commercial code establishes 2 principal ways of keeping your accounting records – manually (in accounts books) or digitally. In this second case, Panama does not recognise Excel sheets as being an acceptable digital form. It is recognised that Excel can be easily modified and does not have a double-entry system. Sage / PeachTree is typically used by businesses in Panama to run their accounting or tailored accounting programs for this purpose.
What is important is that the information MUST be kept up to date – i.e. no more than 60 days after month end.
Panama does not require that these records be maintained physically in Panama or that you hire or retain a Panamanian accountant or book-keeping firm to maintain the accounts. Nevertheless, each company must inform the registered agent which officer/director/agent (natural person, not a company) will be responsible. The company must inform where these records will be physically located. In the event of any changes (the person moves or changes), the registered agent must be informed in no more than 10 days of said change.
For how long?
These records must be kept for no less than five years after the period ends, even in the event that the company is closed down.
What does Gray & Co. expect from clients?
All clients have been sent an Accounting Records declaration form, in which the client is required to indicate:
- who is the person that will be responsible for keeping these accounting records?
- where will the accounting records be kept?
- how will the accounting records be kept – format?
The Registered Agent’s responsibilities:
The registered agent of a company is expect to:
- Have from each client that does not have their accounting records with the law office, a sworn declaration as mentioned above
- In the event of a request for accounting records from a duly authorised Panamanian official, notify the client that they have 15 days in which to comply and provide the records
- Should the client fail to comply in these 15 days, the registered agent is required by law to resign.
Other books & registers
After you have considered the matter of accounting records, you might also turn to look at other documentary requirements. Panamanian corporations are also required to maintain the following books and registers:
- Minutes book – all minutes of meetings of the Board of Directors or Shareholders – these should be in chronological order and should include signed originals. The Company Secretary should hold these.
- Shareholder Register – the register which shows who is(are) the current shareholder(s), and any previous shareholder(s). This should include details such as:
- the number of shares issued
- the share certificate number
- the payment made for the shares (fully paid or partially paid)
- the date of issue
- the name and address of the shareholder
If the company still has bearer shares, these must now be held in custody (since December 31, 2015). For more information, please see our article Bearer Share Custody. If you had bearer shares, and failed to make the change to registered shares, then you need to contact your registered agent to get the company records into order.
For more information regarding these requirements and how Gray & Co. can serve you, please contact us.